Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce oxidative stress, inhibit growth, and attenuate biofilm formation activity of Streptococcus mitis

Journal Article
Al-Khedhairy, Shams Tabrez Khan · Javed Ahmad · Maqusood Ahamed · Javed Musarrat · Abdulaziz A. . 2016
Publication Work Type: 
KSU Research work
Magazine \ Newspaper: 
J Biol Inorg Chem
Publication Abstract: 

Abstract

Streptococcus mitis from the oral cavity causes endocarditis and other systemic infections. Rising resistance against traditional antibiotics amongst oral bacteria further aggravates the problem. Therefore, antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized and characterized during this study against S. mitis ATCC 6249 and Ora-20 were evaluated in search of alternative antimicrobial agents. ZnO and TiO2-NPs exhibited an average size of 35 and 13 nm, respectively. The IC50 values of ZnO and TiO2-NPs against S. mitis ATCC 6249 were 37 and 77 µg ml-1, respectively, while the IC50 values against S. mitis Ora-20 isolate were 31 and 53 µg ml-1, respectively. Live and dead staining, biofilm formation on the surface of polystyrene plates, and extracellular polysaccharide production show the same pattern. Exposure to these nanoparticles also shows an increase (26-83 %) in super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Three genes, namely bapA1, sodA, and gtfB like genes from these bacteria were identified and sequenced for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. An increase in sodA gene (1.4- to 2.4-folds) levels and a decrease in gtfB gene (0.5- to 0.9-folds) levels in both bacteria following exposure to ZnO and TiO2-NPs were observed. Results presented in this study verify that ZnO-NPs and TiO2-NPs can control the growth and biofilm formation activities of these strains at very low concentration and hence can be used as alternative antimicrobial agents for oral hygiene.

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