Silver nanoparticles synthesized from Adenium obesum leaf extract induced DNA damage, apoptosis and autophagy via generation of reactive oxygen species

Journal Article
2016, Farah, Mohammad Abul Farah, Mohammad Ajmal Ali, Shen-Ming Chen, Ying Li,Fahad Mohammad Al-Hemaid, Faisal Mohammad Abou-Tarboush, Khalid Mashay Al-Anazi, Joongku Lee, . . 2016
Publication Work Type: 
KSU Research Work
Silver nanoparticles, Adenium obesum, Comet assay, Apoptosis, Autophagy, Reactive oxygen species
Magazine \ Newspaper: 
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces
Publication Abstract: 

ABSTRACT: tSilver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterial used for a wide range of industrial andbiomedical applications. Adenium obesum is a plant of the family Apocynaceae that is rich in toxic cardiacglycosides; however, there is scarce information on the anticancer potential of its AgNPs. We hereinreport the novel biosynthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extract of A. obesum (AOAgNPs). The synthesisof AOAgNPs was monitored by color change and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (425 nm). It was furthercharacterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmissionelectron microscopy (TEM). The FTIR spectra for the AOAgNPs indicated the presence of terpenoids, longchain fatty acids, secondary amide derivatives and proteins that could be responsible for the reductionand capping of the formed AOAgNPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystallinity of the AgNPs. The TEMimages revealed mostly spherical particles in the size range of 10–30 nm. The biological properties of novelAOAgNPs were investigated on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay.Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, induction of apoptosis and autophagy wereassessed. A dose-dependent decrease in the cell viability was observed. The IC50value was calculatedas 217 g/ml. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation confirmed about a 2.5 fold increase in thegeneration of ROS at the highest concentration of 150 g/ml. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in the DNAdamage evaluated by comet assay was evident. Flow cytometry revealed an increase in the apoptotic cells(24%) in the AOAgNPs treated group compared to the control. Acridine orange staining of acidic vesiclesin exposed cells confirmed the induction of autophagy. These findings suggest that AOAgNPs increasedthe level of ROS resulting in heightened the DNA damage, apoptosis and autophagy in MCF-7 cells.