109 - ZOO (GENERAL ANIMAL BIOLOGY – PREMEDICAL)

SYLLABUS FOR  PREMEDICAL
GENERAL ANIMAL BIOLOGY
COURSE CONTENTS
Zoo-109

Lecture Cell Type
Pages  
Subject
 
6th edition 8th edition 9th edition
1 112 98 99 A panoramic view of the cell
Prokaryotic cells & Prokaryotes
112 98 98 Fig 6.5 structure of Prokaryotes
114,115 100, 101 100-101 Figs. Only (6.8)
329 384 383 Viral genomes Fig 19.3 sizes
Types of genomes , Names of viruses Capsids & Envelopes
Capsid & Structrane (capsomeres )
Viral envelopes: Origin, structure
Bacteriophages
330-331 389 384 Why virus need host cells: = Ribosomes, metabolic enzymes (Fig. 19.4)
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
 
 
 
 
 
331-332 385 385 Lytic cycle & virulent virus (Fig. 19.5)
332 386 386 Lysogenic cycle & temperate virus (Fig. 19.6)
332,333, 334 388 388 Lysogenic cycle Fig. 19.6, structure of viral envelopes.
334 387, 388 387-388 Enveloped virus, Fig 18.6 DNA virus (Herpes)
335,336 389 389 RNA virus Example HIV & Aids + Figure 19.8
528 556-557 556-557 Function of prokaryotic cell wall (three Functions)
528-529 557-559 569 Gram stain Fig. 27.5
Fig. 27.2* pili
529-530 558-559 558-559 Capsule & pili
Methods: The gram stain & structures
Many prokaryotes are motile. Flagellar action
530 557 557 Fig. 27.5 Nucleoid region

 

 
 
2
 
 
 
532 564 564-565 Prokaryotes, nutrition groups: photoautotrophs, Chemoautotrophs, Photohetrotrophs, Chemoheterotrophs, Saprobs, Parasites
 
 
 
3 Cell Molecules
  68 68 Macromolecules
64 69
70
69
70
Carbohydrate
Monosaccharides Fig. 5.3
65 71 71 Disaccharides (Fig. 5.4,5.5)
66 72 72 Polysaccharides Storage poly Fig. 5.6
67 73 73 Structural poly, Cellulose Fig. 5.7
68-69 74-75 74-75 Lipid structure, bonds Fig. 5.10
69 75-76 75-76 Triacylglycerol = triglyceride
Saturated, unsaturated fatty acids Fig. 5.11
70 76-77 76-77 Phospholipids, Structure, Behaviour toward water
 
71
77-79 77-79 Proteins: polypeptide, Amino acids, R group, (Fig.5.15)
The Cell Organelles
4 138-143 125-128 125-128 Cell membrane from page
    (A) Membrane models Fig 7.3,7.4 A & B
(B) A membrane is a fluid mosaic of lipids -What is a fluid Fig. 7.3
 
 
 
 
114-117
 
 
111
 
 
 
 
102-104
 
 
117, 118
 
 
 
 
102-104
 
 
117, 118
Nucleus Fig 6.9, Structure & function of the following
a) Nuclear Membrane
b) Nuclear Pores
c) Nuclear Lamina
d) Chromatin
e) Nucleolus
Ribosomes build a cell's protein ( structure & function), Fig 7.1 0
5 118 104-105 104-105 Two types of ER, the difference between SER & RER Fig 7.11
119 104-105 104-105 Functions of SER, Rough ER & Synthesis of Glycoproteins, Transport vesicles
119 105 105 Cell membrane, RER
120 105 105 Structure and Function of Golgi apparatus Fig.7.12
 
 
 
 
6
 
 
 
 
 
 
121-122 107 106 Lysosomes are digestive Fig. 7.13 & 7.14
 
  109-110 109-110 Mitochondria structure & function & Fig. 7.17
126 112 112 The cytoskeleton Fig. 7.21
127 113 113 Microtubules
128 114 114 Centrosomes & centriols Fig. 7.22
 
128,129,130 114-115 114-115 Cilia & Flagella Fig. 7.23*, 7.24 & 7.25
130-132 116 116 Microfilaments Fig.7.27
      Figs. 6.9,6.10,6.12,6.13,6.14, 6.15,6.16,6.17
Enzymes
7 96 151 152 Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers (Fig 6.9 6.10) = 6.12, 6.13*
97 153 153 Enzymes are substrate specific
98 154 154 The active site is an enz. Catalytic center Fig. 6.12 = 6.15*
99-100 155-156 155-156 A cell's physical and chemical environment affects enzyme active, cofactor, Enzy inhibitors. (Fig. 6.13, 6.14) = 6.16, 6.17*.
 
 
 
8
 
 
      Metabolic control often depends on allosteric.
101 157 157 Feedback inhibition, coperativity (Fig.6.15, 16) = 6.18, 6.19*
101,102 159 159 The localization of Enz. within a cell (Fig. 6.17) = 6.20*
How things get into and out of cells
 
9
138-142 125-128 125-128 "Membrane models have..."
the term; Amphipathic
142 126 125 Fluid mosaic model
142-144 128-130 129-130 "Membranes as Mosaics of structure & Function" Term; integral proteins, peripheral proteins, "carbohydrates and cell to cell recognition" Figure 8.5
10 144 131 131 "Permeability of the lipid Bilayer" "Transport proteins"
145 132 132 "Passive transport is diffusion. ...," Terms; concentration gradient. Passive transport.
"Osmosis is the passive transport. ..." Terms; hypertonic, isotonic.
146-147 133-135 133-135 Terms; osmosis, osmoregulation Page 140
The term; facilitated diffusion
148-149 135-136 135-136 The term; active transport
e.g. Sodium-Potassium pump, Figure 8.14 = 8.15*
149-151 136-137 136-137 The term; membrane potential, co- transport
151-152 138-139 138-139 "Exocytosis & endocytosis. ..."
Terms; Phagocytosis, pinocytosis. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
(Case study: Familial hypercholesterolemia)
Energy production cellular production
 
11 155-156 162-164 162-164 Principles of Energy Harvest
156 165 165 Cells recycle the ATP they use for work. The NAD, NADH (Fig. 9.4)
160, 161 166-167 165-168 The Process of cellular Respiration
Respiration involves glycolysis (Fig 9.6)
161 167-169 167-169 the Krebs cycle, and Election transport an over views
Glycolysis harvests chemical energy oxidizing glucose to pyruvate Fig. 9.7).
12 164 170 170 The Krebs cycle (Summary of Krebs cycle chemiosmosis Fig. 9.10
164,165,166 170, 171, 173, 174, 175 170, 171, 173, 174, 175 The inner mitochondria, Electron Transport. (Fig. 9.11 show only) Fig. 9.12, Fig. 9.13. Fig. 9.15, Fig. 9.16).
167-173 177-180 177-180 Chemiosmosis 159) Fig. 9.11. Fermentation (Fig. 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20).
The cell cycle : Meiosis and sexual life cycle
13 216-217 228-230 228-230 Cell division distributes identical sets (genome-somatic cells-gametes-chromatin-sister chromatids-centromere- mitosis-cytokinesis- meiosis )
  230 230 The mitotic cell cycle fig. 12.4
 
 
 
14
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
218-219 230-232 230-233 The stages of mitotic cell division in an animal cell figs.12.5,12.6a
221 234 234 Cytokinesis divides fig. 12.8
236-239 251 251 The human life cycle fig. 13.4a = 13.5*
(karyotype-homol.chrom-sex chrom.autosomes- gametes-haploid cell-
Fertilization or syngamy-zygote-diploid cell-meiosis )
239 252 253 Meiosis reduces chrom. Number fig. 13.5 = 13.6*
240-241 253 253 The stages of meiotic cell division (fig. 13.6) 233 = 13.7*
239 then
p. 242, 244
253-257 256-257 Mitosis and meiosis compared fig. 13.7 = 13.8* Fig. 13.9 =13.10* then p. 235 Crossing over fig. 13.9 =13.10*
 
15
Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene idea
Chapter 15: The chromosomal basis of inheritance
247-248 262-264 262-264 Character- trait -true-breeding -hybridization-monohybrid cross p generation-Fl, F2 generations) By the law of segregation, the two
250-251 265-266   fig. 14.4 table 14.1 242 = 250*
16 251-252 267 266 Some useful genetic vocabulary homozygous- 244 heterozygous-phenotype-genotype The testcross (Fig.
14.6)
252 268 267 By the law of independent assortment, each pair…. (and first paragraph in p. 246 = 254* and fig. 14.7b )
17 261 277 276 Genetic diseases (briefly) Recessively inherited disorders
262 278 277 Cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease
262 278 277 Sickle-cell disease, dominantly inh. Disorders
263-264 279-280 278-280 Huntington dis., Multifactorial disorders, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, alcoholism, schizophrenia and manic- depressive disorder.
18 278 289 289 Sex-linked disorders in humans Page 269 =277* Color blindness Page 270 Hemophilia
280-282 299-300 299-300 Human disorders due to chromosomal alterations Page 273 =280* Down syndrome, klinefelter syndrome Page 274 Cri du chat
276 289 289 Sex chromosomes
277 290  
289
 
The chromosomal basis of sex varies with the organism 269 (and fig. 15.8)
  Information Codes and Genes
 
19 79 86 87 Fig. 5.25, Nucleic acids
80,81,82 87 88 DNA & RNA, Fig. 5.26 = 5.28*
The nitrogen bases
83 87 88 Fig. 5.27 = 5.29*
 
82-83 89 89 Inheritance is based + Fig. 5.28 = 5.30*
290-292 306, 308, 309 306, 308, 309 "Watson & crick discovered." Figure 16.3, 16.5 -16.6
293-294 312 312 The term; Semiconservative model Figure 16.7-16.8 (للتوضيح فقط)
19 295-298 312-319 312-319 " A Large team of enzymes "
The student should know briefly what is the meaning of the following: (Fig. 16;10, 16.12, 16.13, 16,15,16.16) DNA replication, Origins of replication, Replication fork
DNA polymerase, Leading strand, Logging strand DNA Ligase, Primer, Primase Helicase, Okazaki fragments
304-307 328-331 328-331 "'Transcription…..... (Fig. 17.2-17.4) What is transcription? What is translation?
What mRNA & RNA Processing?
"In the genetic code…."
The term; triplet code
The term; template strand
 
 
20
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
20
304-309 330 330 "Cracking the code "
309- 310 330-334 330-334 The student should know the following terms briefly).
RNA Polymerase (Fig. 17.6,7.7)Transcription Unit
Transcription factor
313 337 337 "Translation is the RNA. ..,"Terms; tRNA, Anticodon (Fig. 17.21 = 23* ,22 = 24*)
316-320 338-342 337-342 "Ribosome "Terms; rRNA, p Site, A Site, E Site
Briefly what is initiation elongation and termination? (Fig. 17.14 = 17.15* ,15 = 17*,16 = 18*,17 = 19*,19 = 21*)
 
 
 
 
 
21
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22
 
322-325
 
334-346
 
334-346
 
"Point mutation" Fig. (17,21 = 17.23*)
The student should know what is.
Point mutations
Base-pair substitution
Missense mutations
Nonsense mutation
Insertions
Deletion
Frameshift mutation
Mutagens
325 347 347 What is the gene briefly the definition in page 316 (Fig 17.23 = 17.25*)
955     An introduction to regulatory systems
956     The endocrine system and the nervous fig 45.1
958     A variety of local regulators affect fig. 46.19
958-959     Chemical signals bind to specific fig. 45.3,4
960     Steroid hormones, thyroid fig. 45.5
 
 
 
23
 
 
960
     
The vertebrate endocrine fig. 45.6 = 45.45*, tab. 45.1
962     The hypothalamus and pituitary fig 45.7 = 45.6* a,b
962     Posterior pituitary hormones
964     Anterior pituitary hormones
964     the pineal gland is
965     Thyroid hormones function figs. 45. 8,9 = 45.7, 8*
24 966     Parathyroid hormone fig.45.10 = 45.9*
966     Endocrine tissues of the pancreas fig.45.11 = 45.10* 906
969     The adrenal medulla and Fig.45.15 = 45.14*
949     Nervous system and hormonal fig. 44.21 a,b = 44.24*
972     Gonadal steroids regulate fig. 46.14
 
 
 
               

 
 
 
 
Evaluation and Assessment
 
 

Grade Activities  
15% First midterm exam 1
15% Second midterm exam 2
30% Practical 3
40 Final Examination 4
100 Total  

 
 
 
 
For more details about course specifications, please visit:
http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/73101/default.aspx

Course Materials