Dr. Mahmoud Mostafa M. Azzam received his Ph.D. in animal nutrition and feed science from Zhejiang University, China and his post-doc. training in poultry health and nutrition in the college of animal science of the Zhejiang University, China. He was awarded an international project from NSFC (31350110511) to study the mechanism of threonine to improve the immunity of laying hens. He is recognized as an authority on amino acids (threonine, valine, and isoleucine) in laying hen nutrition. His research interest is amino acids nutrition and nutritional immunology. His current research projects focus on nutrition strategies to improve the immunity and optimize economic efficiency of poultry under hot and arid environments.