بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم "أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ أَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ ثَمَرَاتٍ مُخْتَلِفًا أَلْوَانُهَا وَمِنَ الْجِبَالِ جُدَدٌ بِيضٌ وَحُمْرٌ مُخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَانُهَا وَغَرَابِيبُ سُودٌ " (فاطر 27)
Natural processes that create landforms and landscapes - physics and chemistry of weathering and soil formation - dynamics of mass wasting - streams and glaciers - karst processes -...
Meteorites and origin of the solar system - distribution of elements – isotope Geology and radiometric age determination – basic thermodynamics – reaction kinetics - crystal chemistry –...
Crystallization in solutions and magma – crystal symmetry – crystal forms and habits – crystallographic systems – crystal lattices – chemical and physical properties of minerals –...