Serum leptin is elevated in Saudi Arabian patients with metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease.

Journal Article
Kumar, Al-Daghri N, K Al-Rubean , WA Bartlett, Al-Attas O.S, AF Jones, S . 2003
Publication Work Type: 
PHD
Magazine \ Newspaper: 
Diabetic Medicine
Volume Number: 
20(10)
Pages: 
832-837
Publication Abstract: 

AIMS:

To compare plasma leptin in Saudi subjects with Type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) with non-diabetic control subjects and to examine the relationship of plasma leptin to other CHD risk factors.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD:

Serum leptin concentrations were measured in 144 Saudi men. Subjects studied included 59 with Type 2 diabetes mellitus [BMI 27.5 (3.7) kg/m2 mean (sd)], 34 with coronary heart disease [BMI 29.6 (1.8) kg/m2], and 51 non-diabetic controls [BMI 28.0 (3.5) kg/m2]. There was no significant difference in BMI between the groups. Fasting serum leptin, lipids, insulin, apolipoproteins and glucose were measured. BMI, blood pressure; smoking habit and age were also recorded. Insulin resistance was assessed using the HOMA model.

RESULTS:

Leptin concentrations were significantly higher in diabetic and CHD patients than in controls (P = 0.024 and 0.016, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed that body weight (P < 0.0006), serum triglyceride concentration (P = 0.046) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.013) were all significantly related to the logarithm of the serum leptin concentration (R2 = 0.549) in CHD patients. A subgroup analysis, comparing those patients who had the metabolic syndrome, as defined by WHO, with controls, showed higher serum leptin in those with metabolic syndrome (P = 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Serum leptin is increased in Saudi subjects with diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and CHD. Leptin may be a marker of risk of CHD, at least in men, and contribute to the CHD risk profile in subjects with insulin resistance. Further studies are needed to evaluate this relationship prospectively.