Molecular insights into the association of obesity with breast cancer risk: relevance to xenobiotic metabolism and CpG island methylation of tumor suppressor genes

Journal Article
, Naushad SM, Hussain T, Al-Attas OS, Prayaga A, Digumarti RR, Gottumukkala SR, Kutala VK., . 2014
Publication Work Type: 
PHD
Magazine \ Newspaper: 
Mol Cell Biochem.
Volume Number: 
392(1-2)
Pages: 
273-80
Publication Abstract: 

Obesity, genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolic pathway, hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes, and hypomethylation of proapoptotic genes are known to be independent risk factors for breast cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the combined effect of these environmental, genetic, and epigenetic risk factors on the susceptibility to breast cancer. PCR-RFLP and multiplex PCR were used for the genetic analysis of six variants of xenobiotic metabolic pathway. Methylation-specific PCR was used for the epigenetic analysis of four genetic loci. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis revealed a significant interaction between the body mass index (BMI) and catechol-O-methyl transferase H108L variant alone or in combination with cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1m1 variant. Women with "Luminal A" breast cancer phenotype had higher BMI compared to other phenotypes and healthy controls. There was no association between the BMI and tumor grade. The post-menopausal obese women exhibited lower glutathione levels. BMI showed a positive association with the methylation of extracellular superoxide dismutase (r = 0.21, p < 0.05), Ras-association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family member 1 (RASSF1A) (r = 0.31, p < 0.001), and breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (r = 0.19, p < 0.05); and inverse association with methylation of BNIP3 (r = -0.48, p < 0.0001). To conclude based on these results, obesity increases the breast cancer susceptibility by two possible mechanisms: (i) by interacting with xenobiotic genetic polymorphisms in inducing increased oxidative DNA damage and (ii) by altering the methylome of several tumor suppressor genes.