Serum total, fractionated cholesterol concentration and prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi Arabia.

Journal Article
, AL-Nuaim A, al-Rubeaan K, Al-Mazrou Y, Al-Attas O.S., Al-Dagheri N, . 1996
Publication Work Type: 
PHD
Publication Abstract: 

This is a study of the regional variation in Saudi Arabia with respect to the pattern of distribution of total serum cholesterol concentration, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol to HDL ratio (CH/HDL) and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (HC) among Saudi population. It is a cross-sectional national epidemiological randomized household survey. The subjects consisted of 4548 Saudis over the age of 15 years. The sample was representative and in accordance with the national population distribution with respect to age, gender, regional and residency population distribution. Blood samples were drawn and assayed for total cholesterol concentration (TCC), triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein concentration. Low- density lipoprotein and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio were calculated. The mean serum TCC of female subjects was higher than for male subjects across all regions; however, the difference reached a significance only in the Southern and Western regions. The 90th percentile of serum TCC for male subjects was either equal to or higher than that for female subjects at early age groups across all regions; however, the 90th percentile of serum TCC for female subjects was higher than for male subjects at older age groups across all regions. Mean serum HDL concentration for female subjects was either equal to or higher than for male subjects across all regions, except the Central region. The difference, however, reached a significance in the Western region only. The prevalence of borderline high HC (5.2 to 6.2 mmol/L) was higher among male subjects in the Central region and equal between male and female subjects of Western and Eastern regions and higher among female subjects in the Northern and Southern regions. The prevalence of high HC (>6.2 mmol/L) was higher among female subjects compared with male subjects across all regions. The highest and lowest prevalence of high HC among male subjects in the Eastern and Northern regions, respectively, while the highest and lowest prevalence of high HC among female subjects were in the Eastern and Northern regions. The prevalence of HC (>5.2 mmol/L) among subjects over the age of 40 years was highest and lowest for male subjects of Eastern and Southern regions, respectively, and for female subjects of Eastern and Western regions, respectively. There was a variable pattern of serum total and fractionated cholesterol concentration distribution among Saudi subjects. It appears, however, that at large, the subjects of the Eastern and Northern regions had the highest and lowest prevalences of cholesterol-related risk factors for CVD, respectively. There is a need to study the underlying factors for the regional variation with respect to cholesterol-related risk factors with emphasis on nutritional habits, including the quantity and quality of food, the prevalence of obesity, glucose intolerance and smoking. Identification of such factors is essential for monitoring the effectiveness of any future plan for combating cholesterol-related risk factors for CVD.