Manal Elkhadragy, Rami Kassab, Dina Metwally, Rafa Almeer, Rewaida Abdel-Gaber, Ebtesam Al-Olayan, Ehab Essawy, Hatem Amin, Ahmed Abdel Moneim (2019) Protective effects of Fragaria ananassa methanolic extract in a rat model of cadmium chloride-induced neu

Journal Article
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Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental toxicant that has harmful effects on plants, animals, and humans. This study evaluated the protective effects of Fragaria ananassa methanolic extract (SME) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced neuronal toxicity in rats. Male albino rats were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg) for 5 days with or without the SME (250 mg/kg). We measured the levels of Cd, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, glutathione, and oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the whole brain homogenate. Compared to the control group, the Cd-intoxicated group showed a marked increase in the brain levels of Cd, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide and a decrease in the levels of glutathione and all tested antioxidant enzymes. Compared to Cd-intoxicated rats, the rats pretreated with SME showed restoration of oxidative balance in the brain tissue. While the expression of brain SOD2 , catalase, glutathione peroxidase 1, and glutathione reductase was downregulated in the Cd-treated group, the expression of these enzymes was upregulated in rats pretreated with SME. In addition, administration of SME before CdCl2 increased the Bcl-2 expression, but significantly decreased the expression of Bax. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that compared to Cd-intoxicated rats, rats pretreated with SME showed a decrease in the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor α. Our findings indicate that SME protects the brain tissue from Cd-induced neuronal toxicity by improving the antioxidant system and increasing antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities.