Publications

Spexin (SPX) is a novel peptide thought to have a role in various metabolic regulations. Given its presumed body-weight regulatory functions, we aimed to determine whether lifestyle intervention programs on weight loss and fasting glucose (FG)...
There are discrepancies in the reports on the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with bone mineral density (BMD) and hence more population-based studies on this subject are needed. In this context, this observational study...
Prospective studies indicate that the exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) during fetal life, infancy, and early childhood may be associated with features of neurodevelopmental disorders in children. However, few studies have investigated...
There is little evidence on the efficacy of various vitamin D supplementation strategies in reversing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents. The present study aims to fill this gap. A total of 535 (243/292) out of 650 apparently healthy Saudi...
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with insulin resistance, even in the absence of overweight/obesity. The aim of the present study is to examine the global serum proteomic profile of adolescent,...
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene polymorphisms in vitamin D metabolites before and after vitamin D supplementation. METHODS: In all, 234 participants (126 women; 108 men) with...
The study aimed to determine whether neck circumference is associated with bone metabolism markers among adult Arab women and found modest but significant associations with bone resorption markers, suggesting that neck circumference, a surrogate...
OBJECTIVE: Subjects with low vitamin D levels are at risk of cardiometabolic disease. The aim of this study was to identify novel serological markers linking vitamin D status with cardiometabolic profile in non-diabetic adults with obesity. METHODS...
OBJECTIVE: The present single-center observational study determined the prevalence and coexistence of sarcopenia, pre-sarcopenia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among apparently healthy Arab men and whether having both conditions present a unique...
INTRODUCTION: Nitric oxide (NOx) is an important biomolecule which interacts with other molecules including 25(OH)D to mediate various metabolic pathways. Interactions and associations of NOx with 25(OH)D have been well studied both in vitro and in...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to characterize the beneficial effects of probiotics on decreasing endotoxin levels and other cardiometabolic parameters in Arab patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Saudi adults with naïve...
The study aimed to determine whether circulating spexin (SPX) is modified during the course of pregnancy and whether it is affected by the presence of glucose intolerance, i.e., Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). This prospective study included...
Data regarding the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy are limited. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 578 Saudi women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited between January 2014 and...
Vitamin D deficiency is rampant in the Middle East, even in children and adolescents. This study was designed to investigate the effects of different vitamin D repletion strategies commonly used on serum vitamin D levels of Saudi adolescents. STUDY...
Numerous studies have been done to establish the relationship between vitamin D and lipids, yet a definitive causal link is not found. This interventional study aims to evaluate and compare levels of apolipoproteins among vitamin D deficient...
BACKGROUND: The present randomized clinical trial characterized the beneficial effects of a multi-strain probiotics supplementation on improving circulating endotoxin levels (primary endpoint) and other cardiometabolic biomarkers (secondary endpoint...
Obesity is a pathological condition caused by genetic and environmental factors, including vitamin D deficiency, which increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. This case-control study was designed to verify whether...
This study aimed to investigate whether uric acid to creatinine (UA/Cr) ratio is associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. 332 adult Saudi type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients were divided into UA/Cr tertiles....
There is conflicting evidence on the favorable effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic profile in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and this might be due to genetic variations in vitamin D receptors (VDRs). Thus, we studied the...
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem. The published literature on vitamin D deficiency is limited among Arab pregnant women and its association with different metabolic markers. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of...
BACKGROUND: The endoplasmic reticulum enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase catalyzes the common terminal reaction in the gluconeogenic/glycogenolytic pathways and plays a central role in glucose homeostasis. In most mammals, different G6PC subunits are...
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the Middle East and in Saudi Arabia, in particular. While several international recommendations on the management of vitamin D deficiency have been documented and practiced globally, these...
BACKGROUND: Overweight adults are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and vitamin D deficiency, whereas an important feature to vitamin D physiology is its sex dependence. The aim of this study was to examine whether vitamin D status...
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the relationship between changes in systemic vitamin B12 concentrations with pro-inflammatory cytokines, anthropometric factors and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic risk in a Saudi population. METHODS: A...
BACKGROUND: Both childhood obesity and vitamin D deficiency are common in the Middle East. This study aims to determine whether the associations of vitamin D status to traditional anthropometric parameters hold true for nonconventional measures of...
BACKGROUND: The significance of vitamin D deficiency in the incidence of bone fractures in children has been under investigated. Here, we aimed to associate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and fractures in Saudi children. MATERIALS AND METHODS:...
AIMS: Betatrophin, a newly identified liver and adipose tissue-derived hormone, has been suggested as an inducer of β-cell proliferation in mice. However, the physiological role of betatrophin remains poorly understood in humans. Hence, the aim of...
BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare the prevalence of childhood obesity and other cardiometabolic risk factors from two independent cohorts (2008 and 2013) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A total of 4549 adolescents aged 12-18 years [2454 boys, 2095...
Accumulating evidence suggests an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East and North African countries. Sunlight has long been recognized as a major provider of vitamin D and lighter skin color has been associated with better...
BACKGROUND: Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) has been proposed as a biomarker of MetS in children and adults. We aim to determine the associations of SHBG with components of MetS in children from the Middle-East where the prevalence of MetS are...
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether 12-month, 2000IU/day vitamin D supplementation cardiometabolically improves treatment naïve type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Saudi patients with vitamin D deficiency.  METHODS: This 12-month interventional study was...
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a recognized risk factor for various cardiometabolic diseases and several indices are used clinically to assess overall cardiometabolic risk. This study aims to determine the sensitivity of six anthropometric indices [Body...
This study determined the effects of a high-fat meal on circulating endotoxin and cardiometabolic indices in adult Arab women. The cohort consisted of 92 consenting Saudi women (18 non-diabetic (ND)) control subjects; Age 24.4 ± 7.9 year; body mass...
The recent exponential surge in vitamin D research reflects the global epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and its potential impact on several chronic diseases in both children and adults. Several subpopulations, including Arab adolescent boys and...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To provide guidelines for medical professionals in Saudi Arabia regarding osteoporosis. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: A panel of 14 local experts in osteoporosis assembled to provide consensus based on the strength of evidence and...
BACKGROUND: Irisin, a novel myokine, has been shown to increase following vigorous exercise, with studies suggesting that it mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise. Irisin might play a role in 'browning' of white adipocytes, thus...
The herbicides diclofop-methyl and the fungicide difenoconazole are widely used in agriculture and may lead to serious toxicity risks. However, limited studies have been done to evaluate differences in the metabolic effects of these herbicides....
Linking gender-specific differences to the molecular etiology of obesity has been largely based on genomic and transcriptomic evidence lacking endophenotypic insight and is not applicable to the extracellular fluid compartments, or the milieu...
To the Editor: The authors truly appreciate the point raised by Amato and Giordano in that the current version of the visceral adiposity index (VAI) is not suitable for clinical use in the non-Caucasian and pediatric population (1). Their comment is...
BACKGROUND: In this observational study, we aimed to see whether transition in Saudi students entering university life could be a breeding stage for cardiometabolic risk factor emergence and clustering. METHODS: A total of 1878 apparently healthy...
In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi...
Thiamine deficiency has been documented to be prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus, and correction of thiamine deficiency in this population may provide beneficial effects in several cardiometabolic parameters, including prevention of...
Peripheral action of irisin improves glucose homeostasis and increases energy expenditure, with no data on a central role of irisin in metabolism. These studies sought to examine 1) presence of irisin in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and banked...
The recently discovered myokine irisin has been implicated in several observational studies as a potential therapeutic target for obesity-related diseases. However, no information is available as to the heritability of this hormone. The present...
BACKGROUND: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a novel gender-specific index based on waist circumference (WC), BMI, and lipid parameters. Although VAI does not actually estimate visceral adiposity, it accurately reflects visceral fat function and...
BACKGROUND: Irisin, a novel myokine, increases energy expenditure and glucose tolerance and, thus, improves carbohydrate homeostasis in humans. This hormone has potential therapeutic applications for weight loss and improvement in insulin resistance...
BACKGROUND: Thiamine deficiency has suggested to be linked to several insulin-resistance complications. In this study, we aim to associate circulating thiamine levels among cardiometabolic parameters in an Arab cohort using a simple, sensitive,...
While moderate to severe vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Saudi Arabia, skeletal effects associated with this deficiency are not common in this population. In this interventional study we measured the effects of improving vitamin D status on...
BACKGROUND: Sub-clinical hypothyroid dysfunction, a relatively understudied disorder in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), has significant clinical implications if not properly monitored. Also from KSA, more than 50% of the population suffer from...
BACKGROUND: Little or no research has determined the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation in conjunction with pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches in the diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) patients. The objective of this study was to...
BACKGROUND: Low grade chronic inflammation is observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Endotoxin derived from gut bacteria may act as a potent inflammatory stimulant. Probiotics, which are believed to contain health promoting live...
The TLR5 gene encodes an innate immunity receptor. Mice lacking Tlr5 (T5KO) develop insulin resistance and increased adiposity. Owing to the segregation of a dominant nonsense polymorphism (R392X, rs5744168), a portion of humans lack TLR5 function....
BACKGROUND: Previous genome-wide association studies have identified multiple type 2 diabetes (T2D) genetic risk loci in many populations. However, the contribution of these loci to T2D in the Middle Eastern populations with high T2D prevalence is...
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been linked to many adverse health consequences, including breast cancer. This study aims to determine adipocytokine and other biological changes in recently diagnosed breast cancer patients before therapy is started. METHODS...
BACKGROUND: Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) is a gender-specific mathematical index estimated with the use of simple anthropometric (body mass index and waist circumference) and biochemical (triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol)...
BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a major health problem worldwide and its prevalence in Saudi Arabia has reached 31.6%. Patients with diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk of thyroid disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the...
BACKGROUND: The NPC1 gene encodes a protein involved in intracellular lipid trafficking; its second endosomal loop (loop 2) is a receptor for filoviruses. A polymorphism (His215Arg) in NPC1 was associated with obesity in Europeans. Adaptations to...
Recent studies in the Middle East have shown an increased incidence of vitamin D deficiency across this region of year-round sunlight. There is scarcity of information, however, as to the levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], the active...
BACKGROUND: The hallmark of vascular inflammation is the recruitment of circulating leucocytes, primarily monocytes, macrophages and T lymphocytes, into the vascular wall; however, the link between monocyte/macrophage activation and hypertension has...
BACKGROUND: Coffee and tea consumption was hypothesized to interact with variants of vitamin D-receptor polymorphisms, but limited evidence exists. Here we determine for the first time whether increased coffee and tea consumption affects circulating...
BACKGROUND: Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is a novel anthropometric measure hypothesized to be a surrogate measure of visceral abdominal obesity in adults. This study aims to determine whether SAD is superior to other anthropometric measures...
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with impaired human insulin action, suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). In this prospective interventional study we investigated the effects of vitamin D3...
Biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs) provide important information on the diagnosis, therapy and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases. They are evident before measurable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) take place. A total of 35 adult...
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East. In this context, we aimed to determine whether the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is related to degree of physical activity and sun...
BACKGROUND: Telomere length, an indicator of ageing and longevity, has been correlated with several biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease in both Arab children and adults. It is not known, however, whether or not telomere length is a highly...
South Asians have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) than white Caucasians, for a given BMI. Premature biological ageing, assessed by reduction in telomere length (TL), may be mediated by factors...
Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to several chronic diseases in adults. Studies focusing on children and adolescents, however, are limited. In this randomized cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the changes in circulating endotoxin after a high-saturated fat meal to determine whether these effects depend on metabolic disease state. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects (n = 54) were given a high-fat meal (75 g fat, 5...
BACKGROUND: Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with an increased prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) and metabolic syndrome manifestations. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-...
In this study we examined the association of adiponectin gene variants with circulating adiponectin, and known metabolic diseases in 298 healthy controls and 297 Saudi subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Anthropometric and biochemical...
BACKGROUND: Thiamine deficiency has been linked to microvascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, we aim to assess blood and urine thiamine status by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in patients with...
Numerous cross-sectional studies have noted significant negative associations between circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cardiometabolic risk factors, highlighting potential extraskeletal functions of this sterol hormone. Prospective...
AIM: Differences in correlations between leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance in children exist in different ethnic populations. No such information is available in Arab children. This study aims to fill this gap. METHODS: Three hundred and...
PURPOSE:   Seasonal variations in circulating vitamin D levels provide vital information as to the most appropriate time to either start or increase vitamin D supplementation to maintain optimal vitamin D levels. In this follow-up study, we...
BACKGROUND: Follow-up epidemiologic studies are needed to assess trends and patterns of disease spread. No follow-up epidemiologic study has been done in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the current prevalence of major chronic, noncommunicable...
Adipose tissue secreted cytokines (adipocytokines) have significant effects on the physiology and pathology of human metabolism relevant to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We determined the relationship of the pattern of these circulating...
BACKGROUND: Prostate disease incidence is expected to rise among developing nations secondary to increased prevalence of obesity and the elderly. Although many case-control studies have associated obesity to prostate cancer aggressiveness, few have...
PURPOSE: In view of the important roles of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the acute phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) in glucose metabolism and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus...
Understanding the interplay between sleep duration and quality, diet and hormones of obesity may help design effective lifestyle intervention strategies. Here we studied such associations in lean and obese teen-aged Saudi girls. In this cross-...
A decade has passed since metabolic syndrome (MetS) was documented to be highly prevalent in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No follow-up epidemiologic study was done. This study aims to fill this gap. In this cross-sectional, observational study, a...
OBJECTIVE: Studies in obesity have implicated adipocytokines in the development of insulin resistance, which in turn may lead to accelerated aging. In this study, we determined associations of chromosomal telomere length (TL) to markers of obesity...
OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of hypovitaminosis D in subjects, with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and determine its association to various risk factors. METHODS: Three hundred and forty-one (177 non-diabetic, and 164 T2DM)...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity, particularly childhood obesity is common in the Middle East, but no studies have examined the relationship of sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) or abdominal height to conventional markers of obesity in this region...
We studied the association between RBP4 and various markers related to insulin resistance and diabetic complications as well as inflammatory markers in Saudi population suffering from type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. Patients with type 2...
The link between sleep duration and obesity has been well established in adults, but several epidemiological studies revealed inconsistent findings in adolescents and younger children. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep...
INTRODUCTION: Chronic low-grade inflammation is a significant factor in the development of obesity associated diabetes. This is supported by recent studies suggesting endotoxin, derived from gut flora, may be key to the development of inflammation...
Hyperleptinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, and hyperresistinemia were found to be significantly higher with odds ratios (CI 95%) of 2.15, 2.05 and 3.05, respectively, among cigarette smokers with type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabian population. Smoking...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current work is to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of a new human insulin preparation (jusline) following subcutaneous administration in healthy subjects, and to compare this profile with Humulin...