1- Compaction: This is a physical process form mainly because of burial and accumulation of sediments which cause the decrease of pores and pushing the grains (particles) closer together.
2-Cementation: Grains are cemented together by deposition of minerals or grains.
3- Recrystallization: Recrystallization occurs when most of the lime-mud is recrystallized into microspar and pseudospar within most of the limestone lithofacies.                                          4- Solution: Some minerals dissolve.

5- Micritization: This occurs when most of the matrix and grains(including fossils) change to micrite (we say it is micritized).
6-Replacement: Some minerals dissolve and others are precipitated (minerals replace others).
7- Authigenesis: New minerals are formed.
8- Dolomitization: Example: when calcite mineral changes to dolomite.
9- Dedolomitization: (= calcitization) reverse of dolomitization-dolomite changes to calcite.

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