CHEM 340; Organic Chemistry 2

  • Alkyl halides; (6Lect.)

IUPAC nomenclature, classification (Alkyl halides, Vinylic halides. Allylic halides, Benzylic halides, Aryl halides), Physical properties (Solubility, Density, Boiling points), Synthesis [Direct halogenation of hydrocarbons, alcohols (with HCl, PCl3,PCl5,SOCl2)], Reactions of Halogen Compounds Nucleophilic substitution (CN-, HO-, NH3,…….), Elimination Reactions, Formation Uses of Organometallic Compounds (Grignard reagents).
 

  • Alcohols and Phenols; (6Lect.)

IUPAC nomenclature, classification, Physical properties (Alcohols, hydrogen bonding, Diols and Triols, Acidity). Preparation (Hydration of Alkenes & Reduction of aldehydes, ketones, acids, and esters & addition of Grignard compound to aldehydes and ketones. Reactions Involving Carbon-Hydroxyl Bond Breaking (Formation of esters, Replacement of the OH Group by Halide, Dehydration of Alcohols. Reactions involving breaking of O-H bond.
Preparation of Phenols (The Alkali Fusion of Sulfonates & hydrolysis of diazonium salt). Reactions (Salt Formation, Oxidation). Reactions on the Aromatic Ring of Phenols

  • Week 7: 1st Midterm Exam.
  • Ethers and Epoxides: (4Lect.)

Structure of Ethers (symmetrical and unsymmetrical ethers), Nomenclature, Physical properties. Synethsis of ethers (dehydralion of alcohols, Wiliamson Synthesis). Reactions (Reaction with Cold and hot Concentrated Acids: HI), Cyclic Ethers, Uses of ethers.
Epoxides (synethsis from alkene using peracid, Ring opening, Reactions (-NH2, -OH, H3O+ and Grignard reagent).
 

  • Aldehydes and Ketones; (4Lect.)

Structure, Nomenclature, Physical properties. The Carbonyl Group, Physical Properties (boiling points, dipole-dipole attraction, Solubility). Synthesis (Oxidation of Primary and Secondary Alcohols, Ozonolysis of Alkenes, Hydration of Alkynes, Friedel-Crafts Acylation). Reactions: Nucleophilic addition [Addition of Metal Hydrides (LiAlH4 & NaBH4), Addition of Grignard Reagents (Formation of Alcohols), Addition of Hydrogen Cyanide (Formation of Cyanohydrins), Addition of Alcohols (Formation of Hemiacetals and Hemiketals & Acetals and Ketals), Addition of Amines.
 

  • Week 11: 2nd Midterm Exam.

 

  • Carboxylic acids; (5Lect.)

Structure, Nomenclature, Physical properties, Acidity, Synthesis [Preparation of Acids by Oxidation; Oxidation of Primary Alcohols or Aldehydes, Oxidation of Alkylbenzenes), Carbonation of Grignard Reagents, Hydrolysis of Nitriles], Reactions (Salt Formation, Reduction, Esterification, Formation of Amides, Acid halides and Acid anhydrides).
 
Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Acid halides, Esters, Amides, Acid anhydrides
Nomenclature, Sources and Uses of Esters, Reactions of Esters (Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Esters, Alkaline Hydrolysis of Esters (Saponification), Reduction of Esters).
 

  • Amines; (3Lect.)

Structure and Classification of Amines, Nomenclature, Physical properties, Basicity of Amines, Synthesis: (Reduction of nitriles, amide and nitro compounds), Alkylation of Ammonia, Reactions of Amines (Salt Formation, Alkylation, Amide and Imine Formation), Formation and conversion of diazonium salts, Azo Compounds.
 

  • Final revision
  • Final Exam.
Course Materials
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