Cerastes cerastes gasperettii venom Induced Hematological Alterations and Oxidative Stress in Male Mice

Journal Article
Al-Sadoon, Mohamed K. . 2014
Magazine \ Newspaper: 
Issue Number: 
Spl. Edn. 2
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Publication Abstract: 

The desert horned vipers (Cerastes cerastes gasperettii; C. c. gasperettii) are

the most familiar snakes of the great deserts of North Africa and the Middle East, including

the Saudi Arabia. They are responsible for many human snake bites. The current study

was designed to investigate the hematological effects and oxidative stress induction in

lung, heart and spleen after C. c. gasperettii envenomation. Thirty six male Swiss albino

mice were randomly divided into 2 groups, Control group injected intrapretoneally (i.p.)

with saline or LD50 dose envenomed group i.p. injected with venom at a dose of 978 μg/kg

body weight (bwt). Mice were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 6 hrs from the injection. The

number of white blood cells (WBC) was counted in envenomation and non-envenomation

groups. Also, hemoglobin (Hb) was determined. In addition, lipid peroxidation (LPO),

nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT) activity were measured in

lung, cardiac and splenic homogenates. Statistical analyses were carried out using the

unpaired student t test. The differential WBC count showed difference between

envenomated and non-envenomated mice, which was mainly attributable to increase in

neutrophils, monocytes eosinophils, and basophils in the envenomation mice (p<0.001).

In the envenomation mice, the amounts of Hb were significantly lower compared to those

of the non-envenomation group (p<0.001). In addition to the hematological alterations,

C. c. gasperettii envenoming was associated to significant increasing in oxidative stress

levels. Moreover, congestion of the alveolar capillaries in lung, inflammatory cell

infiltration and myonecrosis in heart and splenomegaly were observed after 6 hrs of

envenomation. Based on these observations, we may conclude that the LD50 of C. c.

gasperettii venom causes hematological alternations in mice, characterized by elevated

oxidative stress levels and histological alterations in heart, lung and spleen tissues.