Distribution and metal contamination in the coastal sediments of Dammam Al-Jubail area, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

Journal Article
Al-Malky, Abdelbaset El-Sorogy, Khaled Al-Kahtany, Mohamed Youssefa, Fahd Al-Kahtany, Mazen . 2018
Publication Work Type: 
Magazine \ Newspaper: 
Marine Pollution Bulletin
Volume Number: 
Publication Abstract: 

Present work aims to document the distribution and metal contamination in the coastal sediments of the
Dammam Al-Jubail area, Saudi Arabian Gulf. Twenty-six samples were collected for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd,
Pb, Hg, Sr, As, Fe, Co and Ni analysis. Results of enrichment factor indicated that Sr, Cd, Cu, Hg, V, As, Ni, Cr and
Zn gave enrichment factors higher than 2 (98.87, 40.28, 33.20, 27.87, 26.11, 14.10, 6.15, 3.72 and 2.62 respectively)
implying anthropogenic sources, while Pb, Mn and Al have very low background level (1.37, 0.71,
0.124 respectively), probably originated from natural sources. Average concentrations of Sr, V, Hg, Cd and As
were mostly higher than those from the background shale and the earth crust, the Caspian Sea, the
Mediterranean Sea, the sediment quality guidelines, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Oman. The
higher levels of the studied metals are mostly related samples with high Al and TOM content, as well as the
visible anthropogenic pollutants along the studied coastline. The most recorded anthropogenic pollutants were
sewage effluent, landfilling due to coastal infrastructure development, oil spills, petrochemical industries and
desalination plants in Al-Jubail industrial city.