المنشورات و المؤلفات

  Abstract Purpose: As the world continues to cautiously navigate its way through the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several breakthroughs in therapies and vaccines are currently being developed and scrutinized. Consequently,...
  Abstract Background: This study aimed to assess the telomere length and plasma telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) levels in addition to other inflammatory markers in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Methods: We enrolled 106 children (...
  Abstract Aims: This six-month interventional study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of different educational programs among Saudi females with prediabetes referred by primary care. Methods: A total of 253 [100 GEP (Group Education Program),...
  Abstract Public health endorsements during the present COVID-19 pandemic has led the governments of largely affected countries to imply policies that restrict social mobility to slow COVID-19 spread. The study aimed to explore the effects of COVID...
  Abstract Receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin genes (OPG) were identified as susceptible loci for postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) in various ethnicities, but neither have been studied in an Arabian...
  Abstract The study aimed to explore the influence of the COVID-19 lockdown on the mental status and dietary intake of residents in Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, an online survey was conducted from 11 May to 6 June 2020 corresponding...
  Abstract Objective: To examine differences in maternal serum levels of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, and resistin) and inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interlukin-6 (IL-6)) from early to midpregnancy among Arab...
  Abstract While the independent roles of vitamin D and sex hormones in skeletal health are well established, the associations of vitamin D and its metabolites to sex hormones and their indices are less investigated. In this observational study,...
Abstract NLRP3 inflammasome is one of the multimeric protein complexes of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-containing pyrin and HIN domain family (PYHIN). When activated, NLRP3 inflammasome triggers the release of pro-...
  نشأت فكرة تأليف كتاب الكيمياء الحيوية العامة لمساعدة الطلاب الذين يحتاجون معرفة الأساسيات العامة في الكيمياء الحيوية. حيث سيقوم هذا الكتاب بتأدية دور مهم في معرفة المعلومات الكيموحيوية العامة. 
استخدام الثايموكوينون كمركب قائد للوقاية وعلاج لمتلازمة تسمم الدم البكتيري تعرف متلازمة تسمم الدم البكتيري (Sepsis Syndrome) بأنها عدوى بكتيرية متكاثرة توجد داخل جسم الإنسان ومصحوبة بتغيرات فسيولوجية ومرضية قد تؤدي إلى الإصابة بفشل أعضائه ومن ثم...
  Abstract Objectives: Measures to control the on-going COVID-19 pandemic such as quarantine and social distancing, together with information overload about the sporadic spread of the disease have negatively impacted many individuals' mental and...
  Abstract The RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway regulates bone remodelling and turnover. However, the genetic background of bone mineral density (BMD) and osteopenia in Saudi postmenopausal women is yet to be studied. We studied the genetic polymorphism of ...
  Abstract Vitamin B12 insufficiency is a global health issue among women of childbearing age, yet few studies have investigated its prevalence and risk factors among healthy Middle Eastern populations. This cross-sectional study included 346 Saudi...
  bstract Background: Information on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized Covid-19 patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM) is limited in the Arab region. This study aims to fill this gap. Methods: In this single-center...
  bstract This retrospective study aimed to characterize comorbidities and associated with mortality among hospitalized adults with Covid-19 managed as perthe Saudi Ministry of Health protocol in a specialized tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi...
  Abstract Dietary intake influences gut microbiota activity. Nevertheless, there is a lack of evidence available that illustrates the acute effects of high glucose meal on metabolic endotoxemia. The present study assessed the acute impact of high...
  Abstract Background: The increase in soft drink (SD) consumption is emerging as a serious health issue. Our aim is to explore the prevalence and awareness regarding SD consumption among Saudi students. Methods: This cross-sectional study included...
  Abstract Introduction: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is on the rise in Saudi Arabia. Management of T1DM is crucial in curbing the economic burden of this disease. Studies on insulin pump issues are scarce in the region. The present study aims to...
Abstract This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, trends, and predictors of coffee consumption among Saudi female students and its association with anthropometric and demographic variables. A survey-based study using a face-to-face interview...
  Abstract Vitamin D (VD) has been observed to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of VD supplementation on the serum amyloid P component (SAP) has not been established. This study aimed to investigate the effect of VD...
  Abstract Objective: To evaluate the preferences of patients with osteoarthritis for treatment. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment was conducted among adult OA patients who were presented with 12 choice sets of two treatment options and asked in...
  Abstract Low levels of vitamin D have been linked with increased adiposity and diminished muscle strength. Whether it is also related to fat deposition in muscle tissues is not studied well. This study explored the associations between circulating...
Abstract An abnormal lipid profile is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and lipid profile is inconclusive, with most studies conducted in unhealthy populations. In this study, we...
  Abstract Background: In 2016, an expert working group was convened under the auspices of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) and formulated consensus recommendations for the conduct of...
  Abstract The incidence of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease increases with age, and there are potentially shared mechanistic associations between the two conditions. It is therefore highly relevant to understand the cardiovascular...
  Abstract A consensus platform is provided by the experts of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries' respective osteoporosis societies, on which specific guidelines can be developed further for regional use on the assessment and treatment of...
  Abstract We provide an evidence base and guidance for the use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) for the maintenance of skeletal health and prevention of future fractures in recently menopausal women. Despite controversy over associated side...
  Abstract Osteoporosis is reported to be common among Saudi women. Several minerals appear to be important determinants of insulin-like growth factor (IGF), the bioactivity of which regulates bone and mineral metabolism. Here we proposed that...
  Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the awareness, knowledge, and habits regarding dietary fiber intake and to analyze its relationship with self-reported health status among Saudi adults. A survey-based study using face-to-face...
  Abstract Current dietary supplement (DS) use among Saudi school students is not well described. In this study, we aim to investigate the prevalence and predictors of DS use among adolescents. This cross-sectional study collected data via self-...
  Abstract Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) has a role in lipid metabolism, beta-cell proliferation and diabetes progression, however, the association between different variants in the ANGPTL8 gene and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components has...
  Abstract Aim: This 18 month intervention study aims to determine the efficacy of a lifestyle modification program on prediabetes reversal among Saudi adults. Methods: An 18 month randomized, multicenter trial was conducted among Saudis with...
  Abstract Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the association between components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) at first trimester and development of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in 498 Saudi pregnant women. Materials and Methods: ...
  Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint condition and, with a burgeoning ageing population, is due to increase in prevalence. Beyond conventional medical and surgical interventions, there are an increasing number of 'alternative'...
  Abstract Objective: A summary of recommendations is given within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) setting on the assessment and management of vitamin D deficiency in the region. Methods: An assembly of 11 regional experts gathered to formulate...
  Abstract Vitamin D is endowed with a number of biological properties, including down-regulation of inflammation, and might contribute to the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Vitamin D binds to the vitamin D Receptor (VDR); the...
  Abstract This 12-month, randomized, controlled lifestyle intervention study was aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention in terms of (1) the reduction of at least 5% of body weight compared to baseline and (2) the...
  Abstract Vitamin D supplementation may be used to lower oxidative stress. This interventional study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) levels and other parameters in Arab adults with...
  Abstract Osteoporosis and osteopenia has a significant link with substantial fracture risk. Epidemiological data revealed a protective role of adipose tissue on bone biology in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The current study assessed the...
  Abstract This paper reviews our present knowledge on the contribution of ceramide (Cer), sphingomyelin (SM), dihydroceramide (DhCer) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in obesity and related co-morbidities. Specifically, in this paper, we address...
  Abstract The study examined the associations between physical activity and appendicular lean mass (ALM), fat mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) and examined the role of physical activity on these variables. The participants included 497 men (age...
  Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the changes in dietary patterns of adult Saudis with prediabetes who underwent a six-month lifestyle modification program. A total of 160 Saudis with prediabetes (baseline fasting glucose 5.6-6.9...
  Abstract Background: Hip fracture is the most clinically devastating and economically important complication of osteoporosis. Pain, suffering, loss of mobility and independence are some of the devastating consequences of hip fractures. The present...
  Abstract Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) within senile plaques in the brain and neuroinflammation, possibly driven by the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Nucleoside reverse...
  Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to review the available approaches for bone strength assessment, osteoporosis diagnosis and fracture risk prediction, and to provide insights into radiofrequency echographic multi spectrometry (REMS...
  Abstract Many patients at increased risk of fractures do not take their medication appropriately, resulting in a substantial decrease in the benefits of drug therapy. Improving medication adherence is urgently needed but remains laborious, given...
  Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in one of the co-author's name. The co-author Cyrus Cooper's degree "FMedSci" was incorrectly tagged as family name. This has been corrected with this erratum.
  Abstract Spexin (SPX) is a novel peptide thought to have a role in various metabolic regulations. Given its presumed body-weight regulatory functions, we aimed to determine whether lifestyle intervention programs on weight loss and fasting glucose...
  Abstract There are discrepancies in the reports on the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with bone mineral density (BMD) and hence more population-based studies on this subject are needed. In this context, this...
  Abstract Prospective studies indicate that the exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) during fetal life, infancy, and early childhood may be associated with features of neurodevelopmental disorders in children. However, few studies have...
  Abstract Objectives: The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) sought to revisit the 2014 algorithm recommendations for knee osteoarthritis (OA), in light of recent...
  Abstract Few evaluations of interventions to delay or prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Saudi Arabia (SA) have been undertaken. The present study evaluates the impact of a 6-month intensive lifestyle modification intervention delivered in...
  Abstract Objective: Both vitamin D and Fe micronutrient deficiencies are common in Saudi Arabia but the association between them is unclear. The present study aimed to determine whether Fe indices are associated with vitamin D status and other...
  Abstract There is little evidence on the efficacy of various vitamin D supplementation strategies in reversing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents. The present study aims to fill this gap. A total of 535 (243/292) out of 650 apparently...
  bstract Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely recommended and prescribed to treat pain in osteoarthritis. While measured to have a moderate effect on pain in osteoarthritis, NSAIDs have been associated with wide-ranging adverse...
  Abstract There is increasing emphasis on patient-centred research to support the development, approval and reimbursement of health interventions that best meet patients' needs. However, there is currently little guidance on how meaningful patient...
  Abstract It is well recognized that poor muscle function and poor physical performance are strong predictors of clinically relevant adverse events in older people. Given the large number of approaches to measure muscle function and physical...
  Abstract Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with insulin resistance, even in the absence of overweight/obesity. The aim of the present study is to examine the global serum proteomic profile of...
  Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene polymorphisms in vitamin D metabolites before and after vitamin D supplementation. Methods: In all, 234 participants (126 women; 108...
  bstract The current recommended cutoff value for low vitamin D may result in overestimation of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D levels at 30.0 nmol/L can diagnose the hyperparathyroid cases leading to bone loss, with moderate accuracy, in the Saudi...
  stract Objectives: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and osteoarthritis (OA) are common diseases that frequently co-exist, along with overweight/obesity. While the mechanical impact of excess body weight on joints may explain lower limb OA, we...
  Abstract The study aimed to determine whether neck circumference is associated with bone metabolism markers among adult Arab women and found modest but significant associations with bone resorption markers, suggesting that neck circumference, a...
  Abstract Background: Neck circumference (NC) is a relatively unused index of upper body adiposity. The present study aims to analyze the associations of NC with anthropometric measures of obesity, as well as cardiovascular and metabolic risks in...
  Abstract Objective: Statins have several pleiotropic effects, but the literature regarding the possible relationship between use of statins and outcomes in knee osteoarthritis (OA) is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate whether...
  Abstract However, semantics aside, we think that DXA can indeed serve as a reference standard for measuring muscle mass. Obviously, CT and MRI are advanced techniques that can and have been used to obtain important information such as muscle size/...
  Abstract Objectives: Mediterranean diet has several beneficial effects on health, but data regarding the association between Mediterranean diet and knee osteoarthritis (OA) are limited mainly to cross-sectional studies. We investigated whether...
  Abstract Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to affect iron status via decreased calcitriol production, translating to decreased erythropoiesis. The present study aimed to determine for the first time whether vitamin D supplementation can affect...
  Abstract Economic evaluations are increasingly used to assess the value of health interventions, but variable quality and heterogeneity limit the use of these evaluations by decision-makers. These recommendations provide guidance for the design,...
  Abstract Objective: Subjects with low vitamin D levels are at risk of cardiometabolic disease. The aim of this study was to identify novel serological markers linking vitamin D status with cardiometabolic profile in non-diabetic adults with...
  Abstract Background: Spexin (SPX) is a novel peptide that is implicated in obesity and related energy homeostasis in animals and adult humans. Little is known about its role in adults' overall cardiometabolic health. The aim of the study was to...
  bstract Objective: The present single-center observational study determined the prevalence and coexistence of sarcopenia, pre-sarcopenia, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among apparently healthy Arab men and whether having both conditions present a...
  Abstract RON receptor tyrosine kinase is a transmembrane protein directly involved in suppression of inflammation and its aberrant expression linked to cancers and metastasis. Efforts to block deregulated RON signaling in tumors using small...
  Abstract Introduction: Nitric oxide (NOx) is an important biomolecule which interacts with other molecules including 25(OH)D to mediate various metabolic pathways. Interactions and associations of NOx with 25(OH)D have been well studied both in...
  Abstract Objective: The aim of this trial was to characterize the beneficial effects of probiotics on decreasing endotoxin levels and other cardiometabolic parameters in Arab patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Saudi adults...
  Abstract This study showed that procollagen type 1 amino-terminal pro-peptide and N-MID osteocalcin significantly increased after exercise independent of the form of muscle contraction. Thus, these preliminary results will be useful for future...
  Abstract The study aimed to determine whether circulating spexin (SPX) is modified during the course of pregnancy and whether it is affected by the presence of glucose intolerance, i.e., Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). This prospective study...
  Abstract Vitamin D deficiency is common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Therefore, it is significant to recognize which biochemical markers modulate serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in response to vitamin D supplementation in such a...
  Abstract Spexin (SPX) is a novel biomarker abundantly expressed in several animal and human tissues implicated in food intake and glucose control, respectively. As new roles for SPX are emerging, the present study explored for the first time, the...
  Abstract Data regarding the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy are limited. This study aims to fill this gap. A total of 578 Saudi women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy were recruited between January 2014...
  Abstract Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has serious consequences such as increased risks of preeclampsia, macrosomia and cesarean delivery. Even though the mechanistic basis of GDM has not been completely understood, several risk...
  Abstract This three-arm, randomized, controlled study aimed to determine the differences in the effects of general advice (GA) on lifestyle change, intensive lifestyle modification programme (ILMP) and GA + metformin (GA + Met) in reducing the...
  Abstract Objective: The aim was to assess the peri-implant clinical and radiographic parameters and whole salivary levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 among type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic patients with and without peri-implantitis. Material...
  Abstract Vitamin D deficiency is rampant in the Middle East, even in children and adolescents. This study was designed to investigate the effects of different vitamin D repletion strategies commonly used on serum vitamin D levels of Saudi...
  Abstract Aims/hypothesis: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a circulatory macrophage-derived factor that increases with obesity and leads to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite this, its role in adipose tissue...
  Abstract Background: All proposed definitions of sarcopenia include the measurement of muscle mass, but the techniques and threshold values used vary. Indeed, the literature does not establish consensus on the best technique for measuring lean...
  Abstract Dietary supplements are believed to enhance athletic performance and/or prevent/reverse pathological states. Despite the increasing use of dietary supplements in Saudi Arabia, systematic studies in this field are lacking. This study aims...
  Abstract Objectives: To gather expert opinion on the conduct of clinical trials that will facilitate regulatory review and approval of appropriate efficacious pharmacological treatments for hand osteoarthritis (OA), an area of high unmet clinical...
  Abstract The incidence and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency are increasing worldwide. It is estimated that over 50% of the world's population have low vitamin D (i.e., hypovitaminosis D; serum levels below 30 ng/mL). In vitamin D inadequacy,...
  Abstract The recently published results of the sequential treatment of postmenopausal osteoporotic women with subcutaneous abaloparatide (80 µg/day) (ABL) for 18 months followed by 6 months of oral alendronate (70 mg/week) (ALN) support the...
  Abstract Despite the amount of sunshine in Saudi Arabia, vitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency is highly prevalent among Saudis. Several strategies are known to improve 25(OH)D status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different...
  Abstract Numerous studies have been done to establish the relationship between vitamin D and lipids, yet a definitive causal link is not found. This interventional study aims to evaluate and compare levels of apolipoproteins among vitamin D...
  Abstract Background: The present randomized clinical trial characterized the beneficial effects of a multi-strain probiotics supplementation on improving circulating endotoxin levels (primary endpoint) and other cardiometabolic biomarkers (...
  Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disease, that occurs frequently in the aging population and is a major cause of disability worldwide. Both glucosamine and chondroitin are biologically active molecules that are substrates for...
  Abstract Background: The economic boom in Saudi Arabia indirectly prompted the use of dietary supplements in the last two decades. Our aim is to investigate the prevalence of dietary supplement use and its association with sociodemographic/...
  Abstract Background: Altered expression of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is a major driver of growth and metastasis of cancers. Recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) receptor is a single-pass transmembrane RTK aberrantly expressed in a number of...
  Abstract The recently published Abaloparatide Comparator Trial in Vertebral Endpoints (ACTIVE) assessed the efficacy and safety of abaloparatide (80 µg daily subcutaneous) (ABL) vs placebo during 18 months, in postmenopausal osteoporosis....
  Abstract Obesity is a pathological condition caused by genetic and environmental factors, including vitamin D deficiency, which increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. This case-control study was designed to verify...
  Abstract This study aimed to investigate whether uric acid to creatinine (UA/Cr) ratio is associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. 332 adult Saudi type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients were divided into UA/Cr...
  Abstract There is a growing body of evidence that links nutrition to muscle mass, strength and function in older adults, suggesting that it has an important role to play both in the prevention and management of sarcopenia. This review summarises...
  Abstract Vitamin D binding protein (DBP) and albumin are the important determinants of circulatory 25(OH)D in adults. Physiological function of vitamin D is particularly regulated by DBPs. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) is considered as the...
  Abstract Background and objective: Bisphenol A (BPA) disturbs the metabolism in animals and humans through effecting endocrine system. The role of BPA in obesity is not studied well. Therefore, current study is conducted to investigate its...
  Abstract Background: The aim was to investigate the prevalence of dietary supplement use among pregnant Saudi women and its associations between various demographics. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 137 pregnant women attending...
  Abstract There is conflicting evidence on the favorable effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic profile in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and this might be due to genetic variations in vitamin D receptors (VDRs). Thus, we...
  Abstract Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem. The published literature on vitamin D deficiency is limited among Arab pregnant women and its association with different metabolic markers. Objective: To determine the...
  Abstract Musculoskeletal disorders affect morbidity, quality of life and mortality, and represent an increasing economic and societal burden in the context of population aging and increased life expectancy. Improvement of quality of life should be...
  Abstract Aims: Variations in fibroblast growth factor (FGF) levels have been associated with alterations in blood pressure. FGFs mediate their function through binding to their FGF receptor (FGFR). The FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphism is associated...
  Abstract Background: Several guidelines have been reported for bone-directed treatment in women with early breast cancer (EBC) for averting fractures, particularly during aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. Recently, a number of studies on...
  Abstract Androgens are required for normal male sex differentiation and development of male secondary sexual characteristics. Mutations in AR gene are known to cause defects in male sexual differentiation. In current study, we enrolled a 46,XY...
  Abstract Micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies constitute a global health issue, particularly among countries in the Middle East. The objective of this review is to identify micronutrient deficits in the Middle East and to consider current...
  Abstract Background: The endoplasmic reticulum enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase catalyzes the common terminal reaction in the gluconeogenic/glycogenolytic pathways and plays a central role in glucose homeostasis. In most mammals, different G6PC...
  Abstract Postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important metabolic bone disease characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the postmenopausal period. Recently, the most prevalent form of clinically significant osteopenia and osteoporosis involves...
  Abstract More than 33 years have passed since the first paper highlighting vitamin D deficiency as a public health concern in Saudi Arabia was published in 1983. Despite "early" detection,it wasn't until the year 2010 where the interest in vitamin...
  bstract Background: Vitamin D deficiency is common in the Middle East and in Saudi Arabia, in particular. While several international recommendations on the management of vitamin D deficiency have been documented and practiced globally, these...
  Abstract Background: Overweight adults are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and vitamin D deficiency, whereas an important feature to vitamin D physiology is its sex dependence. The aim of this study was to examine whether vitamin D...
  Abstract The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60 years. Introduction: ...
  Abstract Background: Sarcopenia is increasingly recognized as a correlate of ageing and is associated with increased likelihood of adverse outcomes including falls, fractures, frailty and mortality. Several tools have been recommended to assess...
  Abstract Background: This study aimed to examine the relationship between changes in systemic vitamin B12 concentrations with pro-inflammatory cytokines, anthropometric factors and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic risk in a Saudi population...
  Abstract Background: Both childhood obesity and vitamin D deficiency are common in the Middle East. This study aims to determine whether the associations of vitamin D status to traditional anthropometric parameters hold true for nonconventional...
  Abstract Objectives: To determine seasonal variations in the vitamin D status of Saudi adolescent girls in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and its effect in biochemical and clinical characteristics. Methods: In this prospective study, a...
  Abstract Background: Data regarding comorbidities of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are lacking. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HCV among Saudi patients with diabetes...
  Abstract Background: The significance of vitamin D deficiency in the incidence of bone fractures in children has been under investigated. Here, we aimed to associate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and fractures in Saudi children. Materials and...
  Abstract Aims: Betatrophin, a newly identified liver and adipose tissue-derived hormone, has been suggested as an inducer of β-cell proliferation in mice. However, the physiological role of betatrophin remains poorly understood in humans. Hence,...
  Abstract Background: We aimed to compare the prevalence of childhood obesity and other cardiometabolic risk factors from two independent cohorts (2008 and 2013) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 4549 adolescents aged 12-18 years [2454...
  Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East and North African countries. Sunlight has long been recognized as a major provider of vitamin D and lighter skin color has been associated...
  Abstract Context: Previous studies, including ours, have shown adverse effects of incense smoke on human health. However, the effect of incense smoke on kidney function and structure remains unknown. Objective: To evaluate possible adverse effects...
  Abstract Background: Irisin is a recently identified myokine that plays an important role in preventing obesity and insulin resistance. We investigated whether the common FNDC5 (irisin precursor) gene variants influence susceptibility to obesity...
  Abstract Background: Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) has been proposed as a biomarker of MetS in children and adults. We aim to determine the associations of SHBG with components of MetS in children from the Middle-East where the prevalence of...
  Abstract Background: Immune activation contributes to the persistent state of inflammation associated with metabolic dysfunction in obesity. The specific immune receptors that sense metabolic stress signals and trigger inflammation are...
  Abstract The aim of this study was to examine hemisphere asymmetry of response to pharmacologic treatment in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model using cilostazol as a chemical stimulus. Eight-month-old mice were assigned to vehicle or cilostazol...
  Abstract Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spreads to humans via zoonotic transmission from camels. MERS-CoV belongs to lineage C of betacoronaviruses (betaCoVs), which also includes viruses isolated from bats and...
  Abstract Background: Aberrant expression of RON, a MET family receptor tyrosine kinase, has been correlated to tumor growth and metastasis. Intense research efforts are on to target RON using small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors or specific...
  Abstract A possible role of Snap25 polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was evaluated by analyzing three SNPs within intron 1 in a region known to affect the gene expression in vitro. Genomic DNA from 1019 Saudi individuals (489...
  Abstract Background: Altered expressions of receptor tyrosine kinases drive the growth and metastasis of several cancers. RON is a single pass transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) shown to be aberrantly expressed in various cancer types....
  Abstract The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of intensified SMBG with patient education on DM patients at the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. 60 poorly controlled adult type 1 and 2 DM patients (30 intervention; 30 control) were...
  Abstract Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential enzyme cofactor in most organisms required at several stages of anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. However, little is known on the positive effects of thiamine in diabetic type 1 (DMT1)...
  Abstract Objectives: To determine whether 12-month, 2000IU/day vitamin D supplementation cardiometabolically improves treatment naïve type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Saudi patients with vitamin D deficiency. Methods: This 12-month interventional...
  Abstract Approximately 5-10% of subjects with pre-diabetes eventually progress to diabetes every year. While inflammation is thought to be involved in the development of obesity-related type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the relation between...
  Abstract Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a common nutritional issue and dietary supplementation in the general population, including pregnant women, is generally advised. Appropriately high levels of vitamin D are expected to play a role in...
  Abstract Thisaim of the studyisto investigate the effects of calcitriol (vitamin D) on mouse kidneys under obese conditions. Male C57BL/6J mice were maintained on either low fat diet (LFD) or high fat diet (HFD) with/without calcitriol treatment (...
  Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and multifactorial disease with a rapidly rising incidence in Saudi Arabia. Various genes including zinc finger protein 1 (JAZF1) and tetraspanin 8/leucine-rich repeat-containing G...
  Abstract Background and objectives: There have been inconsistent reports on N-acetyltransferase (NAT) gene polymorphism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and data is particularly limited in the Arab population. Therefore, the main objective of...
  Abstract Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) originated in bats and spread to humans via zoonotic transmission from camels. We analyzed the evolution of the spike (S) gene in betacoronaviruses (betaCoVs) isolated from different...
  Abstract Background and objective: Leptin and vitamin D play an important role in obesity development and metabolic effects; however, the association between leptin and vitamin D is not well studied in Saudi subjects. We aimed to examine gender...
  Abstract Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in several calcium deficiency-related disease conditions. We aimed to investigate vitamin D status and its association with consumption frequencies of various dairy products in Saudi population. Subjects...
  Abstract Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a crucial role in calcium metabolism and skeletal development via altering vitamin D level. Besides, hypersecretion of PTH is implicated in the etiology of osteoporosis. In this study, we analyzed...
  Abstract Background: Obesity is a recognized risk factor for various cardiometabolic diseases and several indices are used clinically to assess overall cardiometabolic risk. This study aims to determine the sensitivity of six anthropometric...
  Abstract This study determined the effects of a high-fat meal on circulating endotoxin and cardiometabolic indices in adult Arab women. The cohort consisted of 92 consenting Saudi women (18 non-diabetic (ND)) control subjects; Age 24.4 ± 7.9 year...
  Abstract Background: Obesity is a risk factor for both vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease. A link between vitamin D status optimisation and improved cardiometabolic profile among adults with obesity could inform public health...
  Abstract The recent exponential surge in vitamin D research reflects the global epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and its potential impact on several chronic diseases in both children and adults. Several subpopulations, including Arab adolescent...
  Abstract Background and objectives: To provide guidelines for medical professionals in Saudi Arabia regarding osteoporosis. Design and settings: A panel of 14 local experts in osteoporosis assembled to provide consensus based on the strength of...
  Abstract The pathogenesis of T2DM involves secretion of several pro-inflammatory molecules by the dramatically increased adipocytes, both by number and size, and associated macrophages of adipose tissue. Since T2DM is usually preceded by obesity...
  Abstract Background: Irisin, a novel myokine, has been shown to increase following vigorous exercise, with studies suggesting that it mediates some of the beneficial effects of exercise. Irisin might play a role in 'browning' of white adipocytes,...
  Abstract Background: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia is rising unexpectedly in every age group. Apart from several risk factors, the lack of awareness is posing a serious threat for low vitamin D levels in...
  Abstract Vitamin D deficiency is a global health threat that has been associated with several chronic diseases. Selenium is an essential trace element because of role in major metabolic processes, immune function, thyroid hormone metabolism, male...
  Abstract Background: The dietary supply of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, betaine, methionine, and choline is essential for normal growth, development, and physiological functions through the life course. Both human and animal studies...
  Abstract Incense smoke exposure has recently been linked to cardiovascular disease risk, heart rate variability, and endothelial dysfunction. To test the possible underlying mechanisms, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers, gene expressions...
  Abstract Background: Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) has been identified as a significant predictor of various cardiovascular events in adults. Limited studies have been conducted in the pediatric population with diverse...
  Abstract Large scale studies in Europeans have clearly identified common polymorphism affecting BMI and obesity. We undertook a genotype study to examine the impact of variants, known to influence obesity, in a sample from the Saudi Arabian...
  Abstract Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the post-menopausal period. The bone loss predominantly involves the trabecular bone and is brought about by an imbalance between the bone remodeling process...
  Abstract Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the post-menopausal period. The bone loss predominantly involves the trabecular bone and is brought about by an imbalance between the bone remodeling process...
  Abstract We report trends in type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in adults residing in the Arabian Gulf States. Among the Saudi population, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 10.6% in 1989 to 32.1% in 2009. Prevalence of the disease...
  Abstract Background: Bronchial Asthma has recently emerged as one of the most prevalent diseases in Arab countries. Environmental and geographical influences were shown to be the reasons of the variations in the rates of prevalence; no analyses...
  Abstract Pesticide exposure has been implicated as an environmental risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the body burden of the pesticide...
  Abstract Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have recently been associated with type 2 diabetes in several non-Asian general populations. As there is currently an epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asia. The prevalence and incidence of diabetes is...
  Abstract Linking gender-specific differences to the molecular etiology of obesity has been largely based on genomic and transcriptomic evidence lacking endophenotypic insight and is not applicable to the extracellular fluid compartments, or the...
  Abstract To explore the mechanisms underlying the suggested role of the vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) complex in the pathogenesis of obesity we performed genetic and immunologic analyses in obese and non-obese Saudi individuals without other...
  To the Editor: The authors truly appreciate the point raised by Amato and Giordano in that the current version of the visceral adiposity index (VAI) is not suitable for clinical use in the non-Caucasian and pediatric population (1). Their comment...
  Abstract Obesity has been associated with increased incidence and mortality of breast cancer. The precise relation between obesity and breast cancer is yet to be determined, with few studies linking them with altered serum levels adipokines and...
  Abstract Diesel exhaust consists of a complex mixture of chemicals which contain known genotoxicants, one of which is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which may be associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes. This study aimed to...
  Abstract Background: The over-all age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) in Saudi Arabia is unprecedented at 31%. Aggressive measures should be done to curb down increasing incidence. In this prospective 6-month study we aim to...
  Abstract Background: The aim of this study is to assess the short-term effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) on the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) cytokine profile in sites with standardized periodontal bony defects in beagle dogs...
  Abstract Background: In this observational study, we aimed to see whether transition in Saudi students entering university life could be a breeding stage for cardiometabolic risk factor emergence and clustering. Methods: A total of 1878 apparently...
  Abstract Background: To determine the gender-dependent association of socio-economic status variables with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adult Saudi population. Methods: A total of 9164 adult Saudis (aged 18-70 years) were...
  Abstract In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy...
  Abstract Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii diffuses smoke polluting air that adversely affects indoor environment that certainly harm human health. Therefore, this study aims at ascertaining the effect of these plants on gonadal hormones...
  Abstract Background: Fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) is an intracellular protein expressed exclusively in the enterocytes of proximal small intestine. FABP2 has a high affinity for saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids and is...
  Abstract The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is rising alarmingly in the Saudi Arabian population. This study was conducted to assess the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and genetic susceptibility to components...
  Abstract  in English, Chinese The aim of the study was to understand whether dietary fatty acids such as saturated, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids act as inflammatory mediators or influence pro-coagulation in Saudi adults. The...
  Abstract Incense smoke is increasingly being recognized as a potential environmental contaminant and is linked to malignant and non-malignant respiratory diseases. The detoxification of environmental contaminants including polycyclic aromatic...
  Abstract Thiamine deficiency has been documented to be prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus, and correction of thiamine deficiency in this population may provide beneficial effects in several cardiometabolic parameters, including...
  Abstract Background: Vitamin D deficiency is an increasingly recognized comorbidity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DMT1), suggesting that vitamin D deficiency might play a role in DMT1. We aimed to determine and compare the vitamin D...
  Abstract Background: Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease. Imbalance of cytokines released from T helper cells and environmental factors, such as exposure to poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of...
  Abstract Obesity, commonly measured as body mass index (BMI), has been on a rapid rise around the world and is an underlying cause of several chronic non-communicable diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition to the...
  Abstract Peripheral action of irisin improves glucose homeostasis and increases energy expenditure, with no data on a central role of irisin in metabolism. These studies sought to examine 1) presence of irisin in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
  Abstract The recently discovered myokine irisin has been implicated in several observational studies as a potential therapeutic target for obesity-related diseases. However, no information is available as to the heritability of this hormone. The...
  Abstract The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on circulating levels of magnesium and selenium in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 126 adult Saudi patients (55 men and 71 women, mean...
  Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disease induced by complex interactions between environmental factors and certain genetic factors. Genetic variants in the Adenosine Binding Cassette Transporter Proteins 1 (ABCA1) have been associated...
  Abstract Background: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a novel gender-specific index based on waist circumference (WC), BMI, and lipid parameters. Although VAI does not actually estimate visceral adiposity, it accurately reflects visceral fat...
  Abstract During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the...
  Abstract Background: Irisin, a novel myokine, increases energy expenditure and glucose tolerance and, thus, improves carbohydrate homeostasis in humans. This hormone has potential therapeutic applications for weight loss and improvement in insulin...
  Abstract This review aims to search and summarise the available evidence on the association between dietary factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Middle Eastern populations, where diabetes prevalence is among the highest in the world....
  Abstract Background: Thiamine deficiency has suggested to be linked to several insulin-resistance complications. In this study, we aim to associate circulating thiamine levels among cardiometabolic parameters in an Arab cohort using a simple,...
  Abstract Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii, known as Arabian incense, diffuses smoke, contaminating the air, which adversely affects human health. Therefore, this study was designed to ascertain the effect of these plants on...
  Abstract While moderate to severe vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in Saudi Arabia, skeletal effects associated with this deficiency are not common in this population. In this interventional study we measured the effects of improving vitamin D...
  Abstract Background: Sub-clinical hypothyroid dysfunction, a relatively understudied disorder in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), has significant clinical implications if not properly monitored. Also from KSA, more than 50% of the population...
  Abstract Background: Little or no research has determined the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation in conjunction with pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches in the diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) patients. The objective of this study...
  Abstract Background: Low grade chronic inflammation is observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Endotoxin derived from gut bacteria may act as a potent inflammatory stimulant. Probiotics, which are believed to contain health...
  Abstract Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a HDL-bound antioxidant enzyme that protects LDL from oxidative modification. Discovery of the antioxidant properties of PON1 led to extensive research on its role in the initiation and progression of...
  Abstract Background: Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and metabolic syndrome, which are characterized by insulin resistance. Inflammation is a co-morbid condition associated with obesity. Vitamin D, besides being a transcriptional regulator,...
  Abstract The TLR5 gene encodes an innate immunity receptor. Mice lacking Tlr5 (T5KO) develop insulin resistance and increased adiposity. Owing to the segregation of a dominant nonsense polymorphism (R392X, rs5744168), a portion of humans lack TLR5...
  Abstract In this study the effect of Boswellia papyrifera (B. papyrifera) and Boswellia carterii (B. carterii) smoke exposure on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in male albino rats was investigated. Rats (n = 11) were exposed daily in smoking...
  Abstract Background: Previous genome-wide association studies have identified multiple type 2 diabetes (T2D) genetic risk loci in many populations. However, the contribution of these loci to T2D in the Middle Eastern populations with high T2D...
  Abstract Objective: Central obesity and sub-clinical inflammation increase metabolic risk, this study examined the intracellular inflammatory pathways in adipose tissue (AT) that contribute to this risk. Design and methods: This study therefore...
  Abstract Background: Obesity has been linked to many adverse health consequences, including breast cancer. This study aims to determine adipocytokine and other biological changes in recently diagnosed breast cancer patients before therapy is...
  Abstract Background: Bronchial asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in Arab children. Environmental pollution has been suggested to be considered causative of asthma, nasal symptoms and bronchitis in both children and adult. The objectives...
  Abstract Background: Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) is a gender-specific mathematical index estimated with the use of simple anthropometric (body mass index and waist circumference) and biochemical (triglycerides and high density lipoprotein...
  Abstract Aim: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has been shown to lower the risk of developing several chronic diseases. The ability to augment circulating adiponectin levels is proposed as an underlying mechanism mediating the beneficial effects...
  Abstract Central adiposity is a significant determinant of obesity-related hypertension risk, which may arise due to the pathogenic inflammatory nature of the abdominal fat depot. However, the influence of pro-inflammatory adipokines on blood...
  Abstract Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a major health problem worldwide and its prevalence in Saudi Arabia has reached 31.6%. Patients with diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk of thyroid disease. The purpose of this study was to...
  Abstract Background: The NPC1 gene encodes a protein involved in intracellular lipid trafficking; its second endosomal loop (loop 2) is a receptor for filoviruses. A polymorphism (His215Arg) in NPC1 was associated with obesity in Europeans....
  Abstract Background: Elevated serum level of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been associated with obesity-related co-morbidities including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Objectives: The present study examined the...
  Abstract Background: Drugs used both in classical chemotherapy and the more recent targeted therapy do not have cancer cell specificity and, hence, cause severe systemic side effects. Tumors also develop resistance to such drugs due to...
  Abstract Recent studies in the Middle East have shown an increased incidence of vitamin D deficiency across this region of year-round sunlight. There is scarcity of information, however, as to the levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D],...
  Abstract Background: The hallmark of vascular inflammation is the recruitment of circulating leucocytes, primarily monocytes, macrophages and T lymphocytes, into the vascular wall; however, the link between monocyte/macrophage activation and...
  Abstract Background: Coffee and tea consumption was hypothesized to interact with variants of vitamin D-receptor polymorphisms, but limited evidence exists. Here we determine for the first time whether increased coffee and tea consumption affects...
  Abstract The role of vitamin D in maintaining calcium homoeostasis and bone mineralization is well-established. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of calcitriol treatment on inflammation, insulin resistance and liver...
  Abstract OA (osteoarthritis) is a degenerative condition associated with obesity. A number of metabolic explanations have been proposed to explain the association between obesity and OA in non-weight-bearing joints; however, none of these...
  Abstract Background: Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is a novel anthropometric measure hypothesized to be a surrogate measure of visceral abdominal obesity in adults. This study aims to determine whether SAD is superior to other anthropometric...
Abstract Vitamin D is well known for its role in maintaining calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and in promoting bone mineralization; however, more of its pleiotropic effects have been described recently. The aim of the present investigation was to...
  Abstract We report the dietary intake of selected nutrients in apparently healthy adults and children and its correlation with circulating levels of serum leptin and resistin. In this observational study, 47 Saudi children (mean age 13.1 ± 2.8...
  Abstract Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with impaired human insulin action, suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). In this prospective interventional study we investigated the effects of...
  Abstract Biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs) provide important information on the diagnosis, therapy and monitoring of metabolic bone diseases. They are evident before measurable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) take place. A total of 35...
  Abstract Background: Accumulating evidence suggests an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East. In this context, we aimed to determine whether the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is related to degree of physical activity...
Abstract Background: Telomere length, an indicator of ageing and longevity, has been correlated with several biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease in both Arab children and adults. It is not known, however, whether or not telomere length is a highly...
  Abstract South Asians have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) than white Caucasians, for a given BMI. Premature biological ageing, assessed by reduction in telomere length (TL), may be mediated by...
  Abstract Loss and disproportionate gain of body weight often seen respectively in smokers and quitters are believed to be due to disrupted energy homeostasis induced by nicotine, the major constituent of cigarette smoke. Energy homeostasis is...
  Abstract Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to several chronic diseases in adults. Studies focusing on children and adolescents, however, are limited. In this randomized cross-sectional study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D...
  Abstract T-cell activation is dependent on signals delivered through the antigen-specific T-cell receptor and accessory receptors on T-cells. Integration of signals through this family of costimulatory and inhibitory receptors and their ligands...
  Abstract Genetics plays a crucial role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Here we examined the association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphisms and MetS in a Saudi Arabian cohort to extend the...
  Abstract The vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene has been involved in the modulation of susceptibility to inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, and could play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Susceptibility to T2DM was...
  Abstract Background: Antiretroviral (ARV) treatment has been associated with abnormalities in lipid and mitochondrial metabolism. We compared patterns of gene expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of HIV-positive subjects before and...
  Abstract Objective: To evaluate the changes in circulating endotoxin after a high-saturated fat meal to determine whether these effects depend on metabolic disease state. Research design and methods: Subjects (n = 54) were given a high-fat meal (...
  Abstract Background: Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with an increased prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) and metabolic syndrome manifestations. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D...
  Abstract In this study we examined the association of adiponectin gene variants with circulating adiponectin, and known metabolic diseases in 298 healthy controls and 297 Saudi subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Anthropometric and...
  Abstract Background and purpose: Hyperglycemia induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in diabetic vascular cells is considered an increasingly important factor for the genesis and development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications...
  Abstract Background: Thiamine deficiency has been linked to microvascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, we aim to assess blood and urine thiamine status by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in...
  Abstract Numerous cross-sectional studies have noted significant negative associations between circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cardiometabolic risk factors, highlighting potential extraskeletal functions of this sterol hormone....
  Abstract Aim: Differences in correlations between leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance in children exist in different ethnic populations. No such information is available in Arab children. This study aims to fill this gap. Methods: Three...
  Abstract Adipocytes secrete many proteins that regulate metabolic functions. The gene inter-α (globulin) inhibitor H5 (ITIH-5) encodes a secreted protein and is known to be expressed abundantly in the placenta. However, using gene expression...
  Abstract Visfatin has been proposed as an insulin-mimicking adipocytokine, predominantly secreted from adipose tissue and correlated with obesity. However, recent studies suggest visfatin may act as a proinflammatory cytokine. Our studies sought...
  Abstract Background: Follow-up epidemiologic studies are needed to assess trends and patterns of disease spread. No follow-up epidemiologic study has been done in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the current prevalence of major chronic,...
  Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease with a multifactorial etiology. The HLA-DRB1*15 allele, is the main genetic risk factor for MS in Caucasians; recent findings showed that the transcription of this molecule is regulated by...
  Abstract Adipose tissue secreted cytokines (adipocytokines) have significant effects on the physiology and pathology of human metabolism relevant to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We determined the relationship of the pattern of these...
  Abstract Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are more susceptible to develop cardiovascular complications than non-diabetic subjects. Several studies have indicated a role of adiponectin gene in the increased coronary artery disease (CAD) risk in...
  Abstract Background: Prostate disease incidence is expected to rise among developing nations secondary to increased prevalence of obesity and the elderly. Although many case-control studies have associated obesity to prostate cancer aggressiveness...
  Abstract The burning of incense is an important source of indoor air pollution in Asia. We assessed the effect of long-term exposure to incense smoke on the body weight and levels of circulating glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-...
  Abstract Purpose: In view of the important roles of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the acute phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) in glucose metabolism and pathogenesis of diabetes...
  Abstract Sepsis and septic shock are life threatening complications and most common cause of death in intensive care units. Thymoquinone, a constituent of Nigella sativa (black seed), holds exceptional promise as an anti-cancer and anti-...
  Abstract Understanding the interplay between sleep duration and quality, diet and hormones of obesity may help design effective lifestyle intervention strategies. Here we studied such associations in lean and obese teen-aged Saudi girls. In this...
Abstract A decade has passed since metabolic syndrome (MetS) was documented to be highly prevalent in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No follow-up epidemiologic study was done. This study aims to fill this gap. In this cross-sectional, observational...
  Abstract Objective: Studies in obesity have implicated adipocytokines in the development of insulin resistance, which in turn may lead to accelerated aging. In this study, we determined associations of chromosomal telomere length (TL) to markers...
  Abstract Objective: To compare the incidence of hypovitaminosis D in subjects, with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and determine its association to various risk factors. Methods: Three hundred and forty-one (177 non-diabetic, and 164...
  Abstract Background: Epidemiological studies have suggested an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) among adults in the Middle-East. This study aims to determine the prevalence of MS in a large cohort of Saudi children and adolescents....
  Abstract Background and aims: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms, either independently or through gene environmental interactions, are associated with cardiovascular diseases in multiple ethnic populations. However, no...
  Abstract Background and objectives: Obesity, particularly childhood obesity is common in the Middle East, but no studies have examined the relationship of sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) or abdominal height to conventional markers of obesity in...
  Abstract Objective: Maternal weight in pregnancy contributes to a glycemic environment that affects fetal growth. Gut peptides (glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), ghrelin, and peptide YY (PYY)) have...
  Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the associations of telomere length to markers of obesity, insulin resistance and inflammation in Saudi children. Methods: A total of 69 boys and 79 girls, aged 5-12 years, participated in this...
  Abstract Background: Association of resistin with insulin resistance (IR) in humans is still controversial and few studies have investigated the association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with IR in children. The purpose of the...
  Abstract We studied the association between RBP4 and various markers related to insulin resistance and diabetic complications as well as inflammatory markers in Saudi population suffering from type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. Patients...
  Abstract Background: Both obesity and type 2 diabetes are among the risk factors for breast cancer development. Combined effect of these metabolic abnormalities on breast cancer risk however, has not been examined in premenopausal women. We tested...
  Abstract The link between sleep duration and obesity has been well established in adults, but several epidemiological studies revealed inconsistent findings in adolescents and younger children. This study aimed to investigate the relationship...
  Abstract Introduction: Chronic low-grade inflammation is a significant factor in the development of obesity associated diabetes. This is supported by recent studies suggesting endotoxin, derived from gut flora, may be key to the development of...
  Abstract Objective: To determine the influence of tobacco exposure in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) in the adult Saudi population. Methods: Six hundred and sixty-four adults (305 males and 359 females) aged 25-70 years were included...
  Abstract Hyperleptinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, and hyperresistinemia were found to be significantly higher with odds ratios (CI 95%) of 2.15, 2.05 and 3.05, respectively, among cigarette smokers with type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabian population....
  Abstract Background: Children from low-income families may be subject to high exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which can lead to respiratory disorders. This study aims to establish methods for assessing total PAH exposure of...
  Abstract Objective: The aim of the current work is to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of a new human insulin preparation (jusline) following subcutaneous administration in healthy subjects, and to compare this profile with...
  Abstract Background: The rs7903146 and rs12255372 variants of TCF7L2 have been strongly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in most populations studied to date. Meta-analysis of 27 different studies has resulted in a global OR of 1.46 [1.42...
  Abstract Objective: To assess if the apolipoprotein (Apo) B/Apo A-I ratio in Saudi patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 patients with...
  Abstract Background: This study aims to identify which among the metabolic syndrome (MS) definitions are closely associated with pathological levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (CRP)...
  Abstract Background: Little information is available on leptin concentrations in individuals with IGT. This study aims to determine and correlate leptin levels to anthropometric measures of obesity in pre-diabetic, (IFG and IGT), type 2 diabetic...
  Abstract Background: Several trials from different populations have reported that non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) has more predictive power than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in detecting coronary heart disease (...
  Abstract Objective: From the emergence of different definitions of metabolic syndrome (MS) we aim to determine the prevalence of such a condition among hypertensive Saudi population and to identify which definition can best assess the risk of...
  Abstract Objectives: South-Asians have lower adiponectin levels compared to Caucasians. It was not clear however, if this intrinsic feature is related to aspects of glucose metabolism. This study aims to determine the relationship between body fat...
  Abstract Aims: Resistin is an adipocyte-derived factor implicated in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This study examines the association between human serum resistin, T2DM and coronary heart disease. Methods: One hundred and fourteen...
  Abstract Modest weight loss if maintained is associated with significant metabolic benefits and reduction in cardiovascular risk. Adipose tissue secretes cytokines believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and cardiovascular...
  Abstract Aims: To compare plasma leptin in Saudi subjects with Type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) with non-diabetic control subjects and to examine the relationship of plasma leptin to other CHD risk factors. Research design and...
  Abstract Plasma concentrations of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol are low in the Saudi Arabian population. A B polymorphism at the CETP (cholesteryl ester protein transfer) locus that is detectable with the restriction enzyme Taq I is a...
  Abstract Aims: Adiponectin is a 30-kDa protein secreted by adipose tissue. The aim of the present study was to compare serum adiponectin in male Indo-Asian and Caucasian subjects and examine its association with fat topography and metabolic...
  Introduction In 1953, Kennedy introduced the lipostatic theory of body weight control, according to which adipose tissue produced a hormone responsible for regulating body size [1]. Five years later, Hervey [2] demonstrated the presence of a...
  Abstract Introduction: Plasma homocysteine (HCYS) concentration is believed to be an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Methods: HCYS was measured in a cohort of 584 Saudi Arabians participating in a national screening study of coronary...
الكتاب الوحيد من الكتب النادرة باللغة العربية عن فيتامين (د)،وذلك لاحتوائه على العديد من الأبحاث العلمية التي أجريت حديثاً حيث إن المعلومات الموجودة به محدثة ومربوطة بأبحاث ودراسات علمية عالمية ومحلية