Molybdenum nanoparticles-induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, G2/M arrest, and DNA damage in mouse skin fibroblast cells (L929)

Journal Article
Pant, Maqsood A. Siddiqui, Quaiser Saquib, Maqusood Ahamed, Nida N. Farshori, Javed Ahmad, Rizwan Wahab, Hisham A. Alhadlaq, Javed Musarrat, Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy, Aditya B. . 2015
Publication Work Type: 
KSU Research Work
Magazine \ Newspaper: 
Colloids and Surfaces B
Issue Number: 
1 January 2015
Volume Number: 
125
Pages: 
73–81
Publication Abstract: 

The present investigation was aimed to study the cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity induced by molybdenum nanoparticles (Mo-NPs) in mouse skin fibroblast cells (L929). Cells were exposed to different concentrations (1–100 μg/ml) of Mo-NPs (size 40 nm) for 24 and 48 h. After the exposure, different cytotoxicity assays (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, MTT; neutral red uptake, NRU; and cellular morphology) and oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, LPO; glutathione, GSH; and catalase) were studied. Further, Mo-NPs-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cell cycle arrest, and DNA damage were also studied. L929 cells treated with Mo-NPs showed a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability and a loss of the normal cell morphology. The percentage cell viability was recorded as 25%, 42%, and 58% by MTT assay and 24%, 46%, and 56% by NRU assay at 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml of Mo-NPs, respectively after 48 h exposure. Furthermore, the cells showed a significant induction of oxidative stress. This was confirmed by the increase in LPO and ROS generation, as well as the decrease in the GSH and catalase levels. The decrease in MMP also confirms the impaired mitochondrial membrane. The cell cycle analysis and comet assay data revealed that Mo-NPs induced G2/M arrest and DNA damage in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, Mo-NPs induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity in L929 cells. Thus, data suggest the potential hazardous nature of Mo-NPs.