Dexrazoxane mitigates epirubicin-induced genotoxicity in mice bone marrow cells

Journal Article
Bakheet, Sabry M. Attia, Sheikh F. Ahmad, Quaiser Saquib, Gamaleldin I. Harisa, Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy, Saleh A. . 2016
Publication Work Type: 
KSU Research Work
Magazine \ Newspaper: 
Issue Number: 
Volume Number: 
Publication Abstract: 

Dexrazoxane is the only clinically approved cardioprotectant against anthracyclines-induced cardiotoxicity. Thus, detailed evaluation of the genotoxic potential of dexrazoxane and anthracyclines combination is essential to provide more insights into genotoxic and anti-genotoxic alterations that may play a role in the development of the secondary malignancies after treatment with anthracyclines. Thus, our aim was to determine whether non-genotoxic doses of dexrazoxane in combination with the anthracycline, epirubicin can modulate epirubicin-induced genotoxicity and apoptosis in somatic cells. Bone marrow micronucleus test complemented with fluorescence in situ hybridization assay and comet assay were performed to assess the genotoxicity of dexrazoxane and/or epirubicin. Apoptosis was analysed by using the annexin V assay and the occurrence of the hypodiploid DNA content. Generation of reactive oxygen species was also assessed in bone marrow by using the oxidant-sensing fluorescent probe 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Dexrazoxane was neither genotoxic nor apoptogenic in mice at a single dose of 75 or 150mg/kg. Moreover, it has been shown that dexrazoxane affords significant protection against epirubicin-induced genotoxicity and apoptosis in the bone marrow cells in a dose-dependent manner. Epirubicin induced marked generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and prior administration of dexrazoxane ahead of epirubicin challenge ameliorated accumulation of these free radicals. It is thus concluded that dexrazoxane can be safely combined with epirubicin and that pre-treatment with dexrazoxane attenuates epirubicin-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent genotoxicity and apoptosis. Thus, epirubicin-induced genotoxicity can be effectively mitigated by using dexrazoxane.